The Historical Christian Doctrine of the Trinity

      Yesterday, I had the privilege of speaking with two gentle, sincere women who are part of the cult known as “Jehovah’s 2000px-Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-English.svgWitnesses” or “The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.” We discussed the usual topics of disagreement. The Person of Christ, the history of the cult founded by a false prophet, and the Triune nature of God or the Trinity. Now J.W.s don’t amongst other things believe as revealed in Holy Scripture, the doctrine of the Trinity. On their website at www.jw.org. they answer the question “Is God a Trinity?” by citing of all things the Encyclopedia Britannica, which says, Many Christian denominations teach that God is a Trinity. However, note what the Encyclopædia Britannica states: “Neither the word Trinity nor the explicit doctrine appears in the New Testament . . . The doctrine developed gradually over several centuries and through many controversies.”  

      Now first of all I would not suggest going to the Encyclopedia Britannica to better understand biblical doctrine. Next, I would agree that it is a doctrine that did develop in regards to how we articulate it over time and their was controversies that surrounded it as you will see in the historical study below. This does not however prove that it is a false doctrine. One thing that is overlooked by many in Christianity today in my opinion is Church history. It has always been important to look back into time and review how they understood certain things, and of course comparing it with God’s Word. Below is a study that I did on this subject and hopefully tomorrow I will add some important facts about the J.W. cult and how it differs with true Christianity, along with helpful passages from Scripture.  As you will see, how J.W.s view the Trinity is really just “Arianism” revisited.  

The Historical Christian Doctrine of the Trinity

      From eternity past the Triune God has always existed. Consisting of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Our Triune God has always existed in and of Himself with perfect fellowship, love, and unity amongst all three Persons of the Triune God, also known as the Trinity. This Triune God, who by the way is the one true God of the universe created everything ex nihilo or out of nothing, simply from His will. And He did not and does not need His creation to exist or to experience fellowship, love, or any thing else from His creation since He has and will always have those things in the Godhead. Nevertheless, God is intimately involved with all of His creation. On January 7, 1855 C.H. Spurgeon preaching on the subject exhorted his listeners to,

“Plunge yourself in the Godhead’s deepest sea; be lost in His immensity; and you shall come forth as from a couch of rest       refreshed and invigorated. I know nothing which can so comfort the soul, so calm the swelling billows of sorrow and grief; so speak peace to the winds of trial, as devout musing upon the subject of the Godhead.”[1]

      Oh what a great thing it is to know God as completely as humanly possible! This paper will serve as an attempt to explain and detail, yet not exhaustively the doctrine of the Trinity, which I don’t believe is humanly possible, but will instead serve several main purposes. These purposes include detailing the historical development of this wonderful doctrine along with some of the key persons (human) associated with it, thus demonstrating the importance of this subject as it relates to the development of church history and/or Christian thought. Therefore, along the way I will try to demonstrate the importance of this doctrine as it relates to the contemporary evangelical church.

Unknown-2Early Church Fathers

         Irenaeus, who lived in the second century and the beginning of the third century and was a disciple of Polycarp, who in turn was a disciple of the apostle John in his Against Heresies. 1.10.1 writes:

“Although the church is dispersed throughout the whole world, to the very ends of the earth, it has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: in one God, the Father Almighty, who made the heaven and the earth and the seas and everything in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who was made flesh for our salvation; and in one Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the times and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, and the bodily ascension into heaven of the beloved Son, Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his future appearing from heaven in the glory of the Father to sum up all things and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race.”2

      So Irenaeus writing in the late second century A.D. to the early third century A.D. understood to a rather high degree that there were three Persons of God. This should not be surprising since he had such a close lineage to one of Jesus’ most personal apostles (John). Even Athenagoras of Athens, who lived approximately the same time period as Irenaeus (133 AD – 190 AD) had some understanding of the Trinity. J.N.D. Kelly writes, “Athenagoras conceived of the Spirit as inspiring the prophets, and was familiar with the triadic formula; he even defined the Spirit as effluence of God, flowing from an returning to Him like a beam of sun.”[2]3 He goes on to describe how some of the early “apologists” of the church mentioned things that point towards God in a Triune way. He mentions that “On several occasions Justin coordinates the three Persons, sometimes quoting formulae derived from baptism and the Eucharist, and at other times echoing official catechetical teaching.”4 Kelly adds that referring to the Holy Spirit, Theophilus, “identified the Spirit of Wisdom, equating the latter with the spirit which, according to Ps. 33, 6, God used along with His Word in creation.”5 So according to Kelly, Theophilus “was the first to apply the term ‘triad’ to the Godhead, stating that the three days which preceded the creation of sun and moon ‘were types of the Triad, that is, of God and of His Word and of His Wisdom.’”6 So briefly we can see how some of the early church fathers thought in regards to the Trinity.

Arian Controversy and The Council at Nicaea 325 A.D. 

         Nicaea1According to Louis Berkhof in his classic The History of Christian Doctrines, “The Trinitarian controversy, which came to a head in the struggle between Arius and Athanasius, had its roots in the past. The early Church Fathers, … had no clear conception of the Trinity.”7 Now I’m not Louis Berkhof that’s for sure, but I think at least some of the early church fathers did have some conception of the Trinity as was noted previously. Now perhaps their definitions and explanations weren’t as clear as we are privy to today, but nonetheless they seemed to be moving in the right direction. Now what we do see here is a mention of the Trinitarian controversy or as Berkhof explains: “The great Trinitarian strife is usually called the Arian controversy, because it was occasioned by the anti-Trinitarian views of Arius.”8 He goes on to explain Arius’ theological opponent Athanasius, whose, “soteriological convictions naturally gave birth to his theological tenets. His fundamental position was that union with God is necessary unto salvation, and that no creature but only one who is Himself God can unite us with God.”9 What transpires during this council is a crucial part of church history that actually changed how we view several doctrines in the church, particularly the doctrines of Christ and the Trinity. Following is a brief summary of what took place during this pivotal moment in church history.

         In 318 AD in Alexandria Egypt rioting occurred in the streets between the bishop Alexander, and a man named Arius, a local presbyter, who was quite popular, and aspired to be the bishop himself. It would seem that Arius was trying to promote himself in an effort to gain a following from the other presbyters, who would ultimately do the electing for the next bishop. All of this occurred after Arius heard a sermon by Alexander that he considered too close to the Sabellian heresy – a heresy that taught a form of Modalism that reduced the Persons of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit to mere names of the one true God who takes on different “modes” at different times. Now today biblical theologians would say that this was incorrect because as Olson rightly puts it: “Thus God, being divine and therefore absolutely perfect, cannot experience change because to change is always to change either for the better or the worse, and in either case God would not be God if he could change.”10 But in the early days there was some confusion, there was a misunderstanding to some degree of how to relate Triune thoughts into human expression. But that train of thought began to change. As Tim Chester puts it,

“The first Christian theologians thought about the Trinity as an expression of God’s actions towards His creation. God had become the Trinity in history. But soon theologians began to recognize that God’s actions must reflect His eternal being. Father, Son, and Spirit were not different modes of God’s activity, but three eternal persons sharing one divine substance.”11    

         This was a good reason initially on Arius’ part, but as a result of his unregenerate heart and sitting under the teaching of Lucian of Antioch who died in 312 AD, Arius “had come to think of Jesus Christ as the incarnation not of God but of a great creature of God – the Logos, who had a beginning in time and remained forever subordinate to the Father not only in terms of his role but also in terms of his very being.”12 As a result of Arius’ errant views of the deity of Christ, he adopted a form of the Trinity, which was made up of three “divine” beings – the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, but only one of which is truly God. His view was that only the Father was without beginning and the Son, although a great creature that shares many of God’s attributes was nevertheless non-existent prior to being begotten of the Father. Ultimately as Olson notes, “Arius and his followers pushed the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ further and further apart so that to many of their opponents it appeared that they were denying any genuine sense of Christ’s divinity and rejecting the Trinity entirely.”13    

         As a result of this issue the First Ecumenical (universal) council was held to “settle doctrinal and ecclesiastical conflicts”14 at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The so-called “Christian” Emperor Constantine called it and presided over it. During which, “The formal and official orthodox doctrine of the Trinity was hammered out at the council and expressed in a creed known generally as the Nicene Creed but officially as the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.”15 Olson goes on to say that this creeds final version “was written at the Council of Constantinople in 381. It eventually became the universal statement of faith of Christendom and remains so for most branches of Christianity.”16  

          Now we have taken a swift flyby of the events leading up to understanding and establishing the doctrine of the Trinity, and I want to make sure that the impact that Athanasius, the young bishop of Alexandria and ultimately the champion of the orthodox Trinitarian doctrine of the church does not go unmentioned.

         Many after the Council of Nicaea were concerned about how the relationship between the Father and the Son was described within the Nicene Creed itself. The term used to describe this relationship was “homoousios,” which means “of the same substance” or “of the same being.” The problem that many Arianism rejecting Christians had with this verbiage was as Gonzalez puts it, “the assertion that the Son was of the same substance as the Father could be understood to mean that there is no distinction between the Father and the Son.”17 As a result some preferred to use the term “homoiousios,” which means “of a similar substance.” Initially, Athanasius viewed these people just as heretical as the Arians themselves. At this time it is now thirty years or so after the Council of Nicaea, which was in A.D. 325. Athanasius, now being older and wiser, “was ready to see the legitimate concern of those Christians who, while refusing Arianism, were not ready to give up the distinction between the Father and the Son.”18 Athanasius was still however convinced that the formula of Nicaea as Gonzalez relates, “could be interpreted in such a way as to respond to the concerns of those who would rather say, ‘of a similar substance.’”19 The conclusion to the issue happened in a synod gathering in Alexandria in A.D. 362 where better clarification was given to the terms defined.

“Athanasius and his followers declared that it was acceptable to refer to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as ‘of one substance’ as long as this was not understood as obliterating the distinction among the three, and that it was legitimate to speak of ‘three substances’ as long as this was not understood as if there were three gods.”20

         Just like the Arians who had previously created songs and hymns to promote their views, those of the “Nicene party” did likewise, creating hymns that affirmed the doctrine of the Trinity: “The most famous of these are “O Splendor of God’s Glory Bright,” by Ambrose and “Of the Father’s Love Begotten,” by Aurelius Prudentius.”21 By this time most of the church was in full support of the Council of Nicaea, and it’s doctrine was fully endorsed and sanctioned at the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople in A.D. 381. By the end of the fourth century, Trinitarian Christianity had become the official religion of the Roman Empire. I think that Gonzalez succinctly relays the success that Athanasius ministry had for the future of the church by saying:

“Although Athanasius never saw the final victory in the cause to which he devoted his life, his writings clearly show that he was convinced that in the end Arianism would be defeated. As he approached old age, he saw emerge around himself a new generation of theologians devoted to the same cause.”22

Athanasius clearly led the charge against Arianism and paved the way for the great doctrine of the Trinity that we know and love today.

The Doctrine of the Trinity in Recent Times Glorified and Defined

         The Puritan Movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries brought forth a time of amazing faith and dedication to purity and holiness in response to knowing whom God truly is as revealed by Scripture and the witness of the Holy Spirit. In one such spectacular collection of Puritan prayers we see the richness of the Trinity and how all three persons were viewed as being responsible for salvation:

“Heavenly Father, blessed Son, eternal Spirit, I adore thee as one Being, one Essence, one God in three distinct Persons, for bringing sinners to thy knowledge and to thy kingdom. O Father, thou hast loved me and sent Jesus to redeem me; O Jesus, thou hast loved me and assumed my nature, shed thine own blood to wash away my sins, wrought righteousness to cover my unworthiness; O Holy Spirit, thou hast loved me and entered my heart, implanted there eternal life, revealed to me the glories of Jesus. Three Persons and one God, I bless and praise thee, for love so unmerited, so unspeakable, so wondrous, so mighty to save the lost and raise them to glory. O Father, I thank thee that in fullness of grace thou hast given me to Jesus, to be his sheep, jewel, portion; O Jesus, I thank thee that in fullness of grace thou hast accepted, espoused, bound me; O Holy Spirit, I thank thee that in fullness of grace thou hast exhibited Jesus as my salvation, implanted faith within me, subdued my stubborn heart, made me one with him for ever. O Father, thou art enthroned to hear my prayers, O Jesus, thy hand is outstretched to take my petitions, O Holy Spirit, thou art willing to help my infirmities, to show me my need, to supply words, to pray within me, to strengthen me that I faint not in supplication. O Triune God, who commandeth the universe, thou hast commanded me to ask for those things that concern they kingdom and my soul. Let me live and pray as one baptized into the threefold Name.”23  

What an incredible representation of the Godhead in the lives of the redeemed! Writing of early 1800 American revivalism and quoting David Rice at the Synod of Kentucky in 1803, Ian Murray writes:

“They appear to have a lively and very affecting view of the infinite condescension and love of God the Father, in giving his eternal and only-begotten Son for the redemption of mankind; and of the infinite love of the Redeemer, manifested in the great and gracious work of redemption; manifested in the labors and sorrows of his life and his death: an affecting view of the astonishing goodness of the adorable Trinity.”24  

He goes on to say, “Now I have given you my reasons for concluding the morning is come, and that we are blessed with a real revival of the benign, the heaven-born religion of Jesus Christ, which demands our grateful acknowledgements to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost.”25

         History has lead up to where we are today, so it is important to relay just how biblical theologians define the doctrine of the Trinity. Paul Enns one of the most respected evangelical theologians of today writes,

“The Trinity of God is a doctrine that is fundamental to the Christian faith; belief or disbelief in the Trinity marks orthodoxy from unorthodoxy. Human reason, however, cannot fathom the Trinity, nor can logic explain it, and, although the word itself is not found in the Scriptures, the doctrine is plainly taught in the Scriptures. The early church was forced to study the subject and affirm its truth because of the heretical teachings that arose opposing the Trinity.”26

          Enns goes on to give a biblically accurate explanation to the Trinity. He describes God as being one in regard to essence; God is three with respect to Persons; The Three Persons have distinct relationships; and the Three Persons are equal in authority. In regards to God being one in regard to essence, Enns says, “It means all three Persons possess the summation of the divine attributes but yet the essence of God is undivided. Oneness in essence also emphasizes that the three Persons of the Trinity do not act independently of one another.”27 God in three with respect to Persons, “emphasizes not only a manifestation but also an individual personality”28 within the Godhead; it also is emphasized “(1) each has the same essence as God and (2) each possess the fullness of God.”29 In saying that the three Persons have distinct relationships, Enns relays that “The Father is not begotten nor does He proceed from any person; the Son is eternally begotten from the Father (John 1:18; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9),”30 and that “The Holy Spirit eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son (John 14:26; 16:7).”31 He makes a crucial observation by suggesting: “It is important to note, however, that these terms denote a relationship within the Trinity and do not suggest inferiority in any way.”32 Lastly, he shows that the three Persons are equal in authority by explaining that, “The Father is recognized as authoritative and supreme (1 Cor. 8:6); the Son is also recognized as equal to the Father in every respect (John 5:21-23); The Spirit is likewise recognized as equal to the Father and the Son (cf. Matt. 12:31).”33    

         In defining the Triune God we know from Scripture that there is only one true and living God who is infinite, eternal, perfect in all His attributes and ways, and is eternally manifest in three Persons—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. These Members form the Triune Godhead, or Trinity, and are one in essential nature, yet possess distinct personalities. Each Member equally possesses all the attributes of deity and are equally worthy of worship and obedience. Even though there has always been equality in importance, personhood, and deity from all eternity, there are differences in roles between the three members of the Godhead. Each member of the Trinity has distinct roles and functions. The Father has always been the Father, and has always related to the Son as a Father does a son. All are equal in power and attribute, but the Father has a greater authority. He has a leadership role among all the members of the Trinity that the Son and Holy Spirit do not have. In creation, the Father speaks and initiates, but the work of creation is carried out through the Son, and sustained by the continuing presence of the Holy Spirit. In redemption, the Father sent the Son into the world, and the Son comes and is obedient to the Father, and dies to pay for our sins. After the Son ascends to heaven, the Holy Spirit comes to equip and empower the church of Christ and to convict the world of sin.    

         A correct understanding of the Trinity is synonymous with a correct understanding of God. For God is Triune in nature and to know God is to know Him just the way He is and has always been as the Trinity. To know and understand God properly is to worship Him properly. To have our minds fixed on whom God has relayed Himself to be is part of our desire to worship our great God and Savior. Paul writing to the Roman church exhorts them in Romans 12:1-2 by saying:

“I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.”

          Part of our spiritual worship is giving our minds up to who God is. It is conforming to who God is and what He has done and will do in the future. An accurate understanding of God’s role in history is to understand Him just the way He is in the Persons of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and knowing God is to have eternal life. The Son praying to the Father in John 17:3 says, “And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.”

         A.W. Tozer writes in his classic work The Knowledge of the Holy,

‘Worship is pure or base as one entertains high or low thoughts of God.’ He also said that ‘we tend, by some secret law of the soul, to move toward our mental image of God…An inadequate view of God is actually idolatry. To worship God or to worship anything less than what God has revealed Himself to be is idolatry.’”34

Clifford McManis reminds us that “God determines what is true (Romans 3:4); The Holy Spirit determines what is true (John 14:17; 16:13; 1 John 5:3); Jesus determines what is true (John 14:6); The gospel determines what is true (2 Corinthians 4:3-6; Colossians 1:5); Scripture determines what is true (Psalm 119:160; 2 Timothy 3:16-17).”35

       The doctrine of the Trinity affects all other doctrines, because it pertains to the Persons of God.  It will directly affect doctrines such as Christ, sanctification, the church, and others. Not getting this doctrine right will inevitably bring negative implications toward the doctrine of Christ, because the full range of Christ’s work cannot be explained apart from the Father and the Holy Spirit. the-triune-god-talk-3-638The doctrine of sanctification is affected in the same way in that Christ is not working alone in the regenerating sanctifying work of the individual believer. He instead is working in perfect unison as the Son of God with the Father and the Spirit of God. A.W. Tozer writes, “A right conception of God is basic not only to systematic theology but to practical Christian living as well…I believe there is scarcely an error in doctrine or a failure in applying Christian ethics that cannot be traced finally to imperfect and ignoble thoughts about God.”36

         A proper or improper view of God will ultimately affect how the church lives and breathes, because if the knowledge of God is skewed, then worship will be impacted negatively by having a wrong view of the Godhead. In most instances, this would not just be an ignorant perspective that needed to be changed, but would actually be outright heresy and definitively unbelief. God has providentially worked through history, which is “His story,” to reveal Himself to us through the Son – the living Word and through the Holy Scriptures – the written Word, which was authored authoritatively by the Holy Spirit, so we may worship Him as He desires to be worshiped “in spirit and truth” (John 4:23, 24). I conclude this paper with several Scriptural references to the Trinity, and there are plenty others, but these are just few.

Matthew 28:19: Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Emphasis added)

1 Corinthians 12:4-6: Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord (ref. to Jesus); and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God (ref. to the Father) who empowers them all in everyone. (Emphasis added)

2 Corinthians 13:14: The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God (ref. to the Father) and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. (Emphasis added)

Footnotes:

1 Qtd. in MacArthur, John. 2009. Fundamentals of the Faith. p.47. Chicago: Moody Publishers.

2 Qtd. in Davidson, Ivor J. 2004. The Birth of a Church: From Jesus to Constantine, A.D. .p. 169. GrandRapids: Baker Books.

3 Kelly, J.N.D. 1960. Early Christian Doctrines 2nd ed. p.102. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.  

4 Ibid. p.102.

5 Ibid. p.102.

6 Ibid. p.102.

7 Berkhof, Louis. 1949. The History of Christian Doctrines. p. 87. Grand Rapids: WM. B. EerdmansPublishing Company

8 Ibid. p.88.

9 Ibid. p.90.

10 Olson, Roger. 1999. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition and Reform. p.143. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.

11 Chester, Tim. 2013. Delighting in the Trinity: Why Father, Son and Spirit are Good News. p.83. Purcellville, VA: The Good Book Company.

12 Olson, Roger. 1999. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition and Reform. p.143. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.

13 Ibid. p.147.

14 Ibid. p.149.

15 Ibid. p.139.

16 Ibid. p.139

17 Gonzalez, Justo L. 2010. The Story of Christianity Vol. I: The Early Church to the Reformation, Second Edition. p. 205. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

18 Ibid. p.206.

19 Ibid. p.206.

20 Ibid. p.206

21 Ibid. p.206

22 Ibid. p.207

23 Bennett, Arthur (Editor). 2014. The Valley of the Vision: A Collection of Puritan Prayers and Devotions, Thirteenth printing of first edition. p. 2-3. Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust.  

24 Qtd in Murray, Ian. 2009. Revival and Revivalism: The Making and Marring of American Evangelicalism 1750-1858. p.158. Carlisle: The Banner of Truth Trust

25 Ibid. p.159

26 Enns, Paul. 2008. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Kindle Location 3856. Chicago: Moody Publishers.

27 Ibid. Location 3880.

28 Ibid. Location 3880.

29 Ibid. Location 3880.

30 Ibid. Location 3904.

31 Ibid. Location 3904

32 Ibid. Location 3904

33 Ibid. Location 3904.

34 Qtd. in Carlson, Ron; Decker, Ed. 1994 Fast Facts on False Teachings. p.33. Eugene: Harvest House Publisher

35 McManis, Clifford. 2013. Biblical Apologetics: Advancing and Defending the Gospel of Christ 3rd ed. p.167. USA: Xlibris.  

36 Tozer, A.W. 1961. The Knowledge of the Holy. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc.

 

Bibliography

Bennett, Arthur (Editor). 2014. The Valley of the Vision: A Collection of Puritan Prayers and Devotions, Thirteenth printing of First Edition. p. 2-3. Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust.  

Berkhof, Louis. 1949. The history of Christian doctrines. Grand Rapids: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Carlson, Ron; Decker, Ed. 1994 Fast Facts on False Teachings. Eugene: Harvest House Publishers

Chester, Tim. 2013. delighting in the trinity: Why Father, Son, and Spirit are good news. Purcellville, VA: The Good Book Company.

Davidson, Ivor J. 2004. The Birth of a Church: From Jesus to Constantine, A.D. Grand Rapids: Baker Books.

Enns, Paul. 2008. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Kindle Location 3856. Chicago:   Moody Publishers.

Gonzalez, Justo L. 2010. The Story of Christianity Vol. I: The Early Church to the          Reformation, Second Edition. p. 205. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Kelly, J.N.D. 1960. Early Christian Doctrines 2nd ed. p.102. New York: Harper & Row,         Publishers.

MacArthur, John. 2009. Fundamentals of the Faith. p.47. Chicago: Moody Publishers.

McManis, Clifford. 2013. Biblical Apologetics: Advancing and Defending the Gospel of Christ,  Third Edition. USA: Xlibris.

Murray, Ian. 2009. Revival and Revivalism: The Making and Marring of  American        Evangelicalism 1750-1858. Carlisle: The Banner of Truth Trust.

Olson, Roger. 1999. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition and           Reform. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.

Scripture. English Standard Version (esv). www.biblegateway.com.

Tozer, A.W. 1961. The Knowledge of the Holy. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc.

J.D.N. 

Glory to God Alone!

 

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